In the complex realm of SEO, many focus on content and backlinks, but there’s a backstage player that ensures your website runs like a well-oiled machine: Technical SEO. This unsung hero ensures that search engines can crawl, interpret, and index your content. If content is king, technical SEO is the castle’s foundation. Ready to fortify that foundation? Grab your hard hat; here’s a simple to follow checklist!

1. Secure and Accessible Website:

HTTPS is a Must: Today, a secure site (denoted by HTTPS rather than HTTP) isn’t just nice-to-have; it’s essential. Search engines favor secure sites, and users trust them more.

Robots.txt: This file guides search engine spiders on which pages or sections of your site they should or shouldn’t index. Ensure it’s correctly set up and doesn’t block crucial pages.

2. Page Speed Optimization:

Why Speed Matters: In our fast-paced digital age, users expect lightning-fast load times. Slow pages lead to higher bounce rates and can negatively impact your rankings.

Image Compression: Large image files can slow down your site. Tools like ImageOptim or TinyPNG can compress your images without compromising quality.

Leverage Browser Caching: By storing local copies of resources, browsers can load pages faster on subsequent visits. Implementing caching can shave seconds off your load time.

3. Mobile Optimization:

Responsive Design: In the modern digital age, mobile searches have not only surpassed desktop but have become the primary mode of online browsing for many. This seismic shift means that having a mobile-friendly site is more than just a trend—it’s a fundamental necessity.

What does “responsive” really mean? At its essence, responsive design ensures that your website’s elements—like text, images, or videos—rearrange and resize themselves based on the device they’re viewed on. Whether it’s a smartphone, tablet, or desktop, the user experience remains consistent and user-friendly.

Benefits of a responsive design include:

  • Lower Bounce Rates: Users are less likely to abandon your site out of frustration if the design caters to their device.
  • Improved SEO Rankings: Search engines, particularly Google, prioritize mobile-friendly websites in search results.
  • Higher Conversion Rates: A seamless user experience across devices often translates to better user engagement and higher conversions.

4. Optimal Site Architecture:

XML Sitemap

At its core, an XML sitemap serves as a roadmap of your website, but it’s not just any map—it’s tailor-made for search engines. This sitemap makes it easier for search engine bots to discover all the pages on your site, ensuring they’re indexed and subsequently visible in search results.

Tips for an Effective XML Sitemap:

  • Update Regularly: If you frequently add new content or make changes, ensure your sitemap is updated accordingly.
  • Prioritize Important Pages: If certain pages are pivotal for your business or hold significant SEO weight, highlight them in your sitemap.
  • Stay Within Limits: Search engines often have a limit on the number of URLs in a sitemap (for example, Google has a 50,000 URL limit). For large websites, consider splitting your sitemap into multiple smaller ones.

Clear URL Structure

A URL isn’t just an address—it’s a signal. Both users and search engines derive meaning from URLs, making their structure pivotal.

The Art of Crafting a Good URL:

  • Descriptive Nature: A URL should give a snapshot of what the page is about. For instance, “” instantly informs users they’re about to view a collection of summer shoes.
  • Avoid Complex Parameters: URLs with multiple parameters like “” can be confusing. Whenever possible, opt for more descriptive, static URLs.
  • Keep it Short and Sweet: While it’s essential to be descriptive, there’s a fine balance. Long URLs can be cumbersome and less shareable. Stick to the essentials.
  • Use Hyphens: In the SEO world, hyphens are the preferred choice for separating words in URLs. Avoid using underscores or spaces.
  • Consistent URL Structure: Whether you decide on a flat or deep structure, be consistent. This aids in better user navigation and a clearer understanding for search engines.

Additional Insights:

  • Avoid URL Duplication: Ensure that each piece of content on your website has a single, unique URL. Duplicate URLs can lead to SEO issues like reduced crawl efficiency and diluted link equity.
  • Incorporate Keywords: Whenever relevant and natural, include your target keywords in the URL. This can provide an added SEO boost.

5. Structured Data:

What is It? Structured data helps search engines understand the context of your content, enhancing your search listings and potentially boosting click-through rates.

Implement Schema Markup: Tools like Google’s Structured Data Markup Helper can guide you. Whether it’s for articles, products, or events, ensure your data is structured.

6. Internal Linking:

Spread the Juice: The term “link juice” might sound quirky, but its significance in the SEO realm is paramount. In essence, link juice refers to the value or equity passed from one page or site to another through hyperlinks. This value is a crucial factor in determining a page’s ranking on search engine results. When you properly implement internal links, you distribute this link juice throughout your site, reinforcing the authority and relevance of multiple pages.

Why is Spreading Link Juice Important?

  • Boosting Underperforming Pages: By directing link juice to specific pages that might be lagging in search visibility, you can bolster their authority and improve their rankings.
  • Enhancing User Navigation: Distributing link juice effectively also correlates with intuitive site navigation, ensuring users find the content they’re seeking quickly.
  • Increasing Pageviews: With apt internal linking, you can guide visitors to more of your content, increasing engagement and reducing bounce rates.

Anchor Text

This refers to the clickable text in a hyperlink. Using accurate, descriptive anchor text is not just an SEO best practice—it enhances user experience by providing clarity about what to expect when they click a link.

Crafting Effective Anchor Text:

  • Be Specific: Generic terms like “click here” don’t offer much insight into what the linked content is about. On the other hand, “discover our latest SEO strategies” gives users and search engines a clear idea of the linked page’s content.
  • Avoid Over-Optimization: Repeatedly using the same anchor text or stuffing it with keywords can come off as manipulative. Keep it natural and varied.
  • Stay Relevant: The anchor text should be pertinent to the content it’s linking to. Misleading users can result in a higher bounce rate and potential penalties from search engines.

Additional Tips for Internal Linking:

  • Link Deep: Instead of just linking to your homepage or main categories, link to deep pages like specific articles or product pages. This brings visibility to the depth of your site’s content.
  • Use Follow Links: By default, links are “dofollow,” meaning they pass on link juice. There are instances where “nofollow” links might be appropriate, but for internal linking, letting the juice flow is typically beneficial.
  • Regularly Audit Internal Links: Over time, some of your pages might be removed or URLs might change, leading to broken links. Periodically checking and updating your internal links ensures a seamless user experience.

technical checklist to help local businesses

7. Optimize for Crawling and Indexing:

Review Robots.txt

The robots.txt file is a crucial component of your website that communicates with search engine bots. Think of it as a set of instructions, telling bots which pages or sections of your site they should or shouldn’t crawl. A misconfigured robots.txt can inadvertently prevent search engines from accessing and indexing important parts of your website.

Delving Deeper into Robots.txt:

  • Purpose and Function: Beyond just blocking bots, the robots.txt file can be used to guide them to your XML sitemap, providing a roadmap of your site’s most vital pages.
  • Specificity is Key: You can create directives for specific bots. For example, you might want to block a particular bot from crawling a section of your site while allowing others.
  • Regular Checks: Website updates or redesigns can sometimes lead to changes in the robots.txt file. Periodically review this file to ensure no essential sections are blocked.

Check for Crawl Errors

Search engine bots continuously crawl websites to understand and rank content. However, various errors can obstruct this crawling process, impacting your site’s visibility in search results.

Harnessing Google Search Console for Crawl Insights:

  • Spotting 404 Errors: A ‘404 Not Found’ error indicates a broken or non-existent page. These can arise from outdated links or typos. While a few 404s might not be catastrophic, numerous errors can degrade user experience and harm SEO. Redirecting or fixing these links should be a top priority.
  • Server Errors: A ‘500 Internal Server Error’ signals that the server couldn’t fulfill the request, often due to misconfiguration. Addressing server errors promptly ensures that search engines can consistently access your site.
  • URL Errors: Sometimes, specific URLs might be inaccessible due to various reasons like blocked by robots.txt, DNS errors, or server connectivity issues. Identifying and rectifying these is pivotal.

Additional Considerations for Crawling and Indexing:

  • Optimize Site Speed: If your website is slow, bots might not crawl all your pages. A faster site ensures thorough crawling and enhances user experience.
  • Structured Data: Incorporating structured data (or schema markup) helps search engines understand your content’s context. This can lead to richer search results, including snippets and carousels, improving visibility.
  • Dive into Log Files: Server log files provide insights into how search engine bots interact with your site. By analyzing these files, you can discern which pages are crawled most frequently, how often bots visit, and if they encounter any issues.

8. Duplicate Content:

The Issue Of Duplicate Content On Your Website

Duplicate content isn’t just a nuisance—it can pose significant challenges for search engines and subsequently, for your site’s performance. When search engines encounter multiple versions of the same content, they grapple with deciding which version is the most relevant to display in search results. This dilution can lead to reduced visibility for all the involved pages.

Why Duplicate Content is a Concern:

  • Diluted Authority: When multiple pages have identical content, backlinks might get spread across these variations instead of consolidating on a single page. This dispersion can reduce the perceived authority of your content.
  • User Experience (UX) Impact: Duplicate content can confuse users. They might wonder why they’re seeing the same information on different URLs or even feel that the site lacks originality.
  • Wasted Crawl Budget: Search engine bots have a crawl budget for each site, which is the number of pages they’ll crawl in a given timeframe. Duplicate content can consume this budget unnecessarily, leading to reduced indexing of other vital pages.

Canonical Tags

In the world of SEO, a canonical tag is akin to a directive or a suggestion, telling search engines which version of a set of pages should be treated as the primary or “canonical” one. This is essential when you have content that’s either identical or highly similar across multiple pages.

Understanding Canonical Tags More Profoundly:

  • Purpose and Function: While a canonical tag doesn’t redirect users, it signals search engines about the preferred version for indexing. This ensures that any ranking power, like backlinks, consolidates on the canonical page.
  • When to Use: Common scenarios include product pages with different color or size parameters, blog posts that can be accessed via multiple pathways, or articles republished across different sections of a site.
  • Proper Implementation: Ensure the canonical tag is correctly placed in the page’s <head> section. Using absolute URLs (e.g., ““) rather than relative ones (/page) is recommended.

Additional Strategies to Combat Duplicate Content:

  • 301 Redirects: If you’ve consolidated or migrated content, use a 301 redirect to guide users and search engines to the new, primary page. This not only resolves duplication but also transfers any accumulated SEO value to the destination page.
  • Parameter Handling in Google Search Console: If URL parameters (like session IDs or sorting options) are generating duplicate content, you can guide Google on how to treat these parameters in Google Search Console.
  • Consistent Internal Linking: Maintain consistency in how you link to your content internally. For instance, always use the same URL structure and avoid mixing www and non-www versions or trailing slashes and non-trailing slash URLs.
  • Utilize Meta Noindex: In specific situations where you don’t want a page indexed but still need it accessible to users (like print versions of pages), use the meta noindex directive.

9. Optimize for Voice Search:

The Rise of Voice: Gone are the days when searching meant solely typing queries into a search bar. With the proliferation of smart speakers, voice assistants, and enhanced mobile voice capabilities, voice search is transforming the way we seek and access information. According to estimates, billions of searches are conducted through voice daily, indicating its growing significance in the digital landscape.

Understanding the Growth and Implications of Voice Search:

  • Beyond Convenience: Voice search isn’t just a passing trend; it’s a shift rooted in convenience and efficiency. For many, speaking a query is quicker and more natural than typing, especially when multitasking or on-the-go.
  • Diverse Platforms: It’s not just about Amazon’s Alexa or Apple’s Siri. Google Assistant, Microsoft’s Cortana, and several other voice-enabled technologies are expanding the scope and reach of voice search.
  • Impact on SEO: Voice search carries distinct implications for search engine optimization. Since voice queries tend to be longer and more specific, there’s a growing importance for long-tail keywords and locally-focused content.

Focus on Natural Language

The way people speak often differs from the way they type. Voice search queries frequently sound like someone is talking to another person, rather than inputting keywords into a search engine. This transition demands a more human touch in content creation.

Strategies for Harnessing Natural Language in Content:

  • Question-Based Content: Many voice searches begin with question words like “who,” “what,” “where,” “when,” and “how.” Crafting content that answers these questions directly can significantly enhance voice search visibility.
  • Conversational Tone: Incorporate a conversational style in your content. It not only aligns with voice search tendencies but also fosters engagement and relatability with readers.
  • Long-Tail Keywords: Given that voice search queries are often lengthier, incorporating long-tail keywords (phrases that are longer and more specific) can drive targeted, high-intent traffic.

10. Core Web Vitals:

Google’s New Metrics: These focus on user experience, measuring load time, interactivity, and visual stability.

Stay Updated: As these are relatively new, it’s essential to stay updated on best practices and optimize your site accordingly.


Technical SEO might seem daunting, but with the right checklist, it becomes manageable and highly rewarding. By ensuring your website’s backstage is running smoothly, you pave the way for content and off-page strategies to shine. So, roll up your sleeves and dive into the nitty-gritty of technical SEO. Your website’s performance, user experience, and search rankings will thank you!